Geographical Location :
Western ghats are the continuous range of mountains, rising up from the
India's Malabar Coast. The average elevation of the western ghats is
approximately 1200 meters. Starting at south of Tapti
(near the border of Gujrat and Maharastra), Western Ghats cover
1600 Km, and pass through states like Maharastra, Goa
Kerala, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. The mountain range of Western Ghats end at
Kanyakumari, which is the southern end of India.
It is very important to know about the climatic conditions, as it helps in
understanding the proper ecology of the region. The elevated region of the
western ghats records the temperate climate while the climate is tropical
and humid in the lower parts. The temperature ranges from 20oC in the south
to 24oC in the north Although the climate is largely modified by the
seasonal winds. During the summer season they are responsible for bringing
the monsoon and in winters the winds provide the cool and serene atmosphere.
Western Ghats forests and eco regions :
The landscape comprises of variety of eco-systems
ranging from lush green to moist evergreen forests. Numerous hills in
the mountain range of Western Ghats are continuous and have higher peaks.
Many of peaks and hills, such as Kalsubai, Mahabalehwar, Taramati,
Harishchandragad, Mullayanagiri, Nilgiri and Biligirirangans are house to
plenteous dense forests. In fact, the Western Ghats prepare the largest
forest area in the South India. The major vegetation types are tropical
evergreen forests, moist deciduous forests, scrub jungles, sholas, savannas
including the high rainfall savannas. The highly dense forest has several
wildlife parks including the Silent Valley National Park which is considered
to be the only virgin forest in the country.
Western Ghats Floral System :
Western ghats are known for the 56 genera of flowering plants, which are
considered as endemic. Apart from this there are four thousand species of
flowering plants that are known from the western ghats includingCycas
circinalis (Cycadales), Decussocarpus wallichianus (Coniferales ), and
Gnetum ula and G. contractum (Gnetales). Amongst the lower plants 320
species of pteridophytes, 200 species of bryophytes, 300 species of algae
and 800 species of lichens are known.
Western Ghats Wildlife :
These ghats are the home to some of the rarest and endangered faunal
species on earth like lion tailed macaques, claw less otters, Nilgiri
langurs, Nilgiri Tahr are few such examples. Apart from these Western ghats
boost of very rich species of amphibians, which includes 117 species of
frogs, toads and caecilians.
There are several wildlife sanctuaries and evergreen forests such as
Nagarhole National Park, Bandipur
, Wayanad National Park and Mudumalai National Parks that
are located in this Ghat. The filthily well off dense forsets in shelter
numerous of wild animals. Karnataka Ghats alone are home to over 6,000
elephants. Besides, a large number of Tigers, Gaurs, Butterfly and hundreds
of species of Birds are found here. Than there are around 218 species of
freshwater fishes, out of which 53% in the western ghats are considered as